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More on Engraving Techniques...

The process of cutting into the surface of an annealed glass object either by holding it against a rotating copper wheel fed with an abrasive or by scratching it, usually with a diamond. See also carving, cutting, and stippling.

Carving: The removal of glass from the surface of an object by means of hand-held tools.

Cutting: The technique whereby glass is removed from the surface of an object by grinding it with a rotating wheel made of stone, wood, or metal, and an abrasive suspended in liquid as the cutter holds the object against the upper, or top, side of the rotating wheel. See also copper-wheel engraving, carving, and wheel engraving.

Stippling: (1) The technique of tapping the surface of a glass object with a pointed tool, often with a diamond or tungsten-carbide tip. Each tap produces a mark, and the decoration is composed of many hundreds or thousands of marks.
(2) On lacy-pattern pressed glass, the stippling is part of the decoration of the mold.

Copper-wheel engraving: A technique of decorating the surface of an object. Copper disks (wheels) of various sizes and rim profiles are rotated on a spindle. An abrasive (in the past, emery was frequently used), mixed with oil, is applied to the edge of the wheel. The wheel presses the abrasive against the glass so that it removes the surface by grinding.

Wheel engraving: A process of decorating the surface of glass by the grinding action of a wheel, using disks of various materials (usually copper, but sometimes stone) and sizes, and an abrasive in a grease or slurry applied to a wheel, as the engraver holds the object against the underside of the rotating wheel. See below for an example of wheel engraving.
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